15 years of galactic surveys and hard X-ray background measurements

Roman A. Krivonos, Antony J. Bird, Eugene M. Churazov, John A. Tomsick, Angela Bazzano, Volker Beckmann, Guillaume Bélanger, Arash Bodaghee, Sylvain Chaty, Erik Kuulkers, Alexander Lutovinov, Angela Malizia, Nicola Masetti, Ilya A. Mereminskiy, Rashid Sunyaev, Sergey S. Tsygankov, Pietro Ubertini, Christoph Winkler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The INTEGRAL hard X-ray surveys have proven to be of fundamental importance. INTEGRAL has mapped the Galactic plane with its large field of view and excellent sensitivity. Such hard X-ray snapshots of the whole Milky Way on a time scale of a year are beyond the capabilities of past and current narrow-FOV grazing incidence X-ray telescopes. By expanding the INTEGRAL X-ray survey into shorter timescales, a productive search for transient X-ray emitters was made possible. In more than fifteen years of operation, the INTEGRAL observatory has given us a sharper view of the hard X-ray sky, and provided the triggers for many follow-up campaigns from radio frequencies to gamma-rays. In addition to conducting a census of hard X-ray sources across the entire sky, INTEGRAL has carried out, through Earth occultation manoeuvres, unique observations of the large-scale cosmic X-ray background, which will without question be included in the annals of X-ray astronomy as one of the mission's most salient contribution to our understanding of the hard X-ray sky.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101612
JournalNew Astronomy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Cosmic X-ray background
  • X-ray surveys

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of '15 years of galactic surveys and hard X-ray background measurements'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this